The abdomen is that part of the body, lying between the chest and pelvis, containing the digestive organs (i.e. the belly).

Localized accumulation of pus in a cavity; usually associated with infection. A common outcome of cat fights.

A rapid and often severe onset. (e.g. acute infection).

Addison's Disease
This disorder occurs when the adrenal glands fails to produce enough hormones for normal function, causing a metabolic and electrolyte imbalance and can potentially be fatal. In dogs, the symptoms can include vomiting, diarrhoea, lethargy, lack of appetite, shaking, muscle weakness, low body temperature, collapse and low heart rate.

Pertaining to food or the digestive tract (alimentary canal).

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction. In allergic animals, the immune system recognizes allergens as "foreign" or "dangerous" and responds accordingly. In non-allergic animals these substances cause no immune response.

Alopecia is a loss of hair from the body. Whilst in humans, alopecia can also be the result of environmental conditions, in animals it is usually the sign of an underlying disease. Some animals may be genetically predisposed, while in other animals it may be caused by hypersensitivity or nutritional factors.

The relief of pain. An analgesic is something designed to relieve pain.

Anaphylaxis refers to a rapidly developing and serious allergic reaction that afects a number of different areas of the body at one time. Severe anaphylactic reactions can be fatal.

A lower than normal level of red blood cells (also referred to as erythrocytes) carrying oxygen to the body.

Anaesthesia is the total loss of feeling or sensation. It is induced with drugs to allow surgery or procedures to be performed without causing pain. Anaesthesia may be applied to the whole body, when it is known as general anaesthesia, or to part of the body, when it is known as local anaesthesia.

Loss of appetite, whatever the cause.

A compound or substance that kills or slows down the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections.

Also known as an immunoglobulin is a large Y-shaped protein to identify and neutralize foreign antigens like bacteria and viruses.

A medication used to treat vomiting and nausea.

A medication used to treat fungal infections such as ringworm.

A substance that triggers the production of an antibody. The immune system recognizes an antigen as a foreign and potentially harmful invader (e.g. bacteria and viruses).

A medication to relieve itching.

A medication to reduce a fever or high temperature.

A medication to relieve coughing. Veterinarians often prescribe antitussive medications to pets that suffer from conditions that cause severe or intense coughing, such as canine cough

Opening at the end of an animal’s digestive tract where faeces are expelled.

Disruption in the regularity of the heartbeat. They occur when the electrical impulses to the heart that co-ordinate heartbeats are not working properly, making the heart beat too fast/slow or inconsistently.

Pertaining to a joint.

The build-up of additional fluid in the abdomen, otherwise called the peritoneal cavity.

To draw in or out using a sucking motion. Aspiration can also mean breathing in a foreign object (such as inhaling food into the airway).

If a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but is not experiencing clinical signs.
A neurological sign that consists of a lack of motor coordination of muscle movements. It often manifests as wobbliness or unsteadiness in animals.

Atopy is an allergic skin condition in dogs caused by exposure to normally innocuous substances in the environment such as house dust mite, pollen from trees, flowers or grasses and mould spores that are absorbed through the skin or inhaled. These substances, called allergens make the immune system over-react and release histamines causing  excessive itching. The dog's paws, face, groin, armpits and ears are most commonly affected areas.

Atrial Fibrillation
An irregular heart rhythm associated with disorganized electrical activity in the upper two chambers of the heart (atria). Its name comes from the fibrillating (i.e. quivering) of the heart muscles of the atria, instead of a coordinated contraction. The result of the rapid, irregular beats is ineffective filling of the ventricles, the bottom two chambers of the heart that pump blood out to the body.

Most commonly refers to a chamber in which blood enters the heart, as opposed to the ventricle, where it is pushed out.

Atrophy is the progressive decrease in the size of an organ or tissue.

Weakened. Normally refers to an attenuated vaccine whereby the disease-causing abilities of the vaccine components are weakened or attenuated during the manufacturing process to make them safe upon administration.

Auscultation is a method used to listen to the sounds of the body during a physical examination, usually with a stethoscope.

A medical condition characterized by an overactive immune system which attacks the body, mistaking normal tissues in the body for harmful substances.

A medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and creatinine, commonly as a result of kidney malfunction or dehydration.

A bacterium is a unicellular microorganism which represents one of the most basic and primitive forms of life. Bacteria are everywhere.  Some bacteria are capable of causing disease in animals.


Meaning two sides.

A green/yellow liquid formed in the liver. Bile plays a vital role in the digestion of fats.

The removal of a sample of tissue or cells from a living subject to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

A female dog.

A sac that receives and holds a liquid until it is excreted.  Often refers to the urinary bladder.

Bladder Problems
Bladder problems are common in dogs and can include issues such as bladder stones, urinary tract infections and incontinence and can present itself by blood in the urine, difficulty urinating and frequent urination.

Bladder Stones
Bladder stones are a common occurrence in domestic animals such as dogs and cats. Blood in the urine, painful urination or straining to urinate may all be signs. Bladder stones may be associated with urinary tract infections, particularly in dogs.

A medical condition in which the stomach becomes overstretched by excessive gas. Bloat is a very serious health risk for many deep-chested dogs.

Blood Glucose
The amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood.

Bone Marrow
Bone marrow is a spongy, fatty tissue that houses stem cells, located inside a few large bones. These stem cells transform themselves into white and red blood cells and platelets.

The rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas through the stomach and/or intestines.

An abnormally slow heart rate.

The large airways within the lungs.

A substance that dilates the airways in the lungs.

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measures the amount of urea nitrogen, a waste product of protein metabolism, in the blood.  It can be used as an aid to measure kidney function.

Part of the gastrointestinal tract between the small and large intestines. It is a small, coiled organ in dogs.

The build-up of calcium salts in soft tissue, causing it to harden.

A concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ of the body. Bladder or kidney stones are an example of calculus.

Cancer is the leading cause of death among older dogs. The warning signs of cancer in dogs are very similar to that in people. A lump or a bump, a wound that doesn’t heal, any kind of swelling, enlarged lymph nodes, a lameness or swelling in the bone or abnormal bleeding should all be investigated.

This fungus or yeast can normally be found in areas of the body such as the mouth, the genital and intestinal tracts. It can cause disease in animals.

Pertaining to dogs.

A subtype of cancer that arises from epithelial cells. Epithelial cells form the lining of our internal organs, cavities, glands, and skin.

Pertaining to the heart.

Literally means "heart muscle disease".

A term relating to both the heart and lungs.

Refers to the circulatory system comprising the heart and blood vessels which carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes.

The animal equivalent of our wrist.

Removal of the testicles.

A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye causing a reduction in vision or blindness. Several factors can promote the formation of cataracts; a genetic predisposition, diabetes mellitus, advanced age or previous eye damage. Currently, cataracts may be treated surgically, if vision is severely impaired.

A term meaning toward the tail or the posterior end of the body.

A region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control and co-ordination.

A region of the brain that controls emotional, behavioural and learning functions.

Treatment of cancer with drugs. The drugs used are slightly more toxic to cancer cells than healthy cells, so the cancer is treated without causing permanent damage.

Cherry Eye
Cherry eye is the common name for the condition where the tear producing gland of the third eyelid prolapses. resulting in the appearance of a firm fleshy mass.  Cherry eye is particularly common in some breeds of dog and is thought due to weakness in the attachment of the gland, allowing it to protrude.

A disease of slow onset and of long duration. (e.g. chronic osteoarthritis)

A chronic disease of the liver whereby healthy tissue is replaced by scar tissue.

Central Nervous System (CNS)
Consists of the brain and spinal cord.

The process by which the body forms a blood clot (thrombus) that prevents further blood loss from damaged tissues, blood vessels or organs.

A defect in the body's mechanism for making blood clots.

Coccidia are microscopic, single celled organisms that infect animal cells. They can cause watery or bloody diarrhoea in pets.

Inflammation of the large intestine (colon).

Collapsing Trachea
The trachea, or windpipe, is the tube that runs from the larynx to the lungs through which air passes. The trachea is normally held open by cartilage rings however if these cartilage rings are too weak, the trachea may flatten out during breathing. The most common clinical sign in affected dogs is coughing (described as a goose honk cough) especially when excited or after exercise or pulling on a lead.  Exercise intolerance, respiratory distress, and gagging while eating or drinking may also occur. Treatment for mild to moderate cases include medication while severe cases may require surgery.

Collie Eye Anomaly
Collie eye anomaly is a congenital and inherited  eye disease, which affects the retina, choroid, and sclera. It can be a mild disease or cause blindness. There is no treatment but the disease can be diagnosed by an examination.

The section of the large intestine extending from the caecum to the rectum.

Colostrum is an antibody-rich milk which is secreted by all female animals during the first few days of a newborn’s life.

A state of unconsciousness from which an animal cannot be awakened.

Complete Blood Count
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as full blood count (FBC) or blood panel, is a test that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood. It is used to evaluate overall health and detect a wide range of disorders, including anaemia and infection.

Computerized Tomography Scan (CT Scan)
Also called computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan, combines a series of X-ray views taken from many different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the bones and soft tissues inside your pet’s body.

A condition that is present at birth.

The tissue lining the inner surface of the eyelids and covering the white of the eyes (sclera).

Inflammation of the conjunctiva.

A condition in which bowel movements occur less often than usual or consist of hard, dry stools that are painful or difficult to pass.

The eating of faeces. Is considered normal behaviour in some species, such as rabbits. However, in other species coprophagy can be related to certain diseases or behavioural problems.

Core Vaccine
Vaccines which are strongly recommended, and sometimes even required.  For example, parvovirus vaccine in dogs or panleucopenia in cats.

The clear front part of the eye.

Corneal Ulcers
Corneal ulcers occur when there is damage to the  outer layer of the cornea. Corneal ulcers are painful, resulting in excessive tearing, squinting, and pawing at the eye. Treatments include antibiotic therapy and pain medication, and in severe cases surgery may be required.

Any of the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal gland or their synthetic equivalents.

Pertaining to the head or in the direction of the head.

The propagation of microorganisms in a growth media. Used to diagnose and guide treatment for infectious diseases.

Cushing’s Syndrome
Cushing's disease is the common name for hyperadrenocorticism, a condition where the body produces excessive corticosteroid hormones.  This disease is caused by an abnormality in the pituitary gland or  the adrenal glands and can often be the result of a  tumour within either of these glands. Lethargy, poor appetite, a distended abdomen, excessive drinking and urination, thin skin and excessive hair loss are all symptoms which can be treated with surgery or medication.

Relating to, or affecting the skin.

A bluish colour of the skin and the mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood.

A pathologic space in bone or soft tissue containing fluid or semi-solid material.

Inflammation of the urinary bladder.

Refers to a branch of pathology that deals with making diagnoses of diseases based on the examination of cells.

The excessive loss of body water.

Dental Disease
Dental disease is very common in dogs but can be prevented.  The most obvious sign of dental disease is calculus or dental plaque. Plaque build up can lead to gingivitis which if left untreated can progress to periodontitis and resulting in tooth loss. Treatment involves scaling and polishing of the teeth under general anesthesia and treatment of any periodontal disease.  Special diets or treats, brushing, and plaque prevention gels can be use to prevent dental disease.

Pertaining to the skin.

Inflammation of the skin.

Diabetes is a metabolic disease where the animal has persistently high levels of glucose in the blood.  Blood glucose levels are normally regulated by insulin, which acts cause cells to take up glucose.  Diabetes can result if there is a lack of insulin production by the pancreas (so-called insulin dependent diabetes), or if the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin (non-insulin dependent diabetes). Symptoms, are excessive drinking and urination, excessive appetite, often with weight loss, and cloudy eyes due to the formation of cataracts. If left untreated, diabetes leads malnutrition, ketoacidosis and/or dehydration, and death.

Diagnostic Test
A test to determine the presence or cause of disease.

Excessive and frequent evacuation of watery faeces, usually indicating gastrointestinal distress or disorder.

Digestive System
The organs responsible for the transit and metabolism of food in the body. These organs include salivary glands, mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, colon, rectum, and anus.

Dilated Cardiomyopathy
This heart condition, which is also known as DCM, is when the heart becomes weakened and enlarged and cannot pump blood efficiently. The symptoms can include less activity and tiring easily, lower appetite, signs of difficult respiration, panting and coughing while at rest and an enlarged pear-shape tummy as fluid accumulates in the abdomen.

A cleaning process which destroys most microorganisms, but not highly resistant forms.

An infectious viral disease occurring in dogs.  Clinical signs include loss of appetite, a discharge from the eyes and nose, vomiting, fever, lethargy, partial paralysis and sometimes death.

A substance increases the production of urine.

Domestic Animal
An animal that is not wild and is kept as a pet or to produce food.

Dry Eye
Dry Eye Syndrome is common in dogs. Most cases are caused by a genetic predisposition, but chronic conjunctivitis, canine distemper, and some drugs can result in either decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. Symptoms include eye redness, a yellow or greenish discharge, ulceration of the cornea, pigmented cornea, and blood vessels on the cornea.

The first part of the small intestine. The duodenum extends from the stomach to the jejunum (the second part of the small intestine).

Duration of Immunity
Length of time an animal is protected from a disease after vaccination. Vaccines for some diseases provide a long duration of immunity, others only provide immunity for up to a year.

Difficulty in swallowing.

A term used in pathology  meaning abnormal development of tissues.

Difficult or laboured breathing; shortness of breath.

Difficult birth.

Painful or difficult urination.

Ear Canal
The narrow tube, between the ear and ear drum, through which sound enters the ear.

Ear Drum
The thin membrane that separates the middle ear from the external ear. Also called the tympanic membrane.

Ear Infections
Ear infections are commonly seen in dogs.  Clinical signs include behavioural changes such is constant scratching or head shaking.  The ear canal may be red and a discharge or strong odour may be present.  If these clinical signs are present veterinary attention should be sought.

Ear Mites
Mites that live in the ears of animals. They can just barely be seen as a small white dot with the naked eye.

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a test that records the electrical activity of the heart.

A test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart (i.e. an ultrasound of the heart).

A parasite, such as a flea, that lives on the exterior of an animal.

Meaning "out of place." (e.g. an ectopic pregnancy is one that has implanted outside the reproductive system)

In medicine, certain mineral elements that are critically important to life, including sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and phosphorous.

Elizabethan Collar
A medical device that is shaped just like a cone and is used to prevent the animal from biting, licking, and scratching at wounds and injuries while they heal.

Elongated Soft Palate
The soft palate is the fleshy tissue at the back of the roof of the mouth that separates the mouth from the nasal passages. In some short muzzled breeds, such as pugs or bulldogs, the soft palate can be excessively long resulting in snoring, wheezing, snorting, and coughing when the dog is exercising. This can be corrected with surgery.

A wasted condition of the body.


Inflammation of the brain.

Disease, damage, or malfunction of the brain.

Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make them. These hormones regulate an animal's growth, physiology and sexual development.

A lighted medical instrument used to get examine organs such as the oesophagus, stomach or airways.

Endotracheal Tube
A breathing tube placed into the trachea. Commonly used during anaesthesia to facilitate delivery of oxygen and anaesthetic to the lungs.

Inflammation of the intestine, especially the small intestine

The act of injecting a poisonous material (venom) by sting, spine or bite.

Enzymes are proteins that increase the rate of chemical reaction. Almost all processes in a cell need enzymes to occur at significant rates.

The outer layer of the skin.

Technical name for bleeding from the nose.

Redness of the skin resulting from dilation of blood vessels caused by irritation or injury to the tissue.

A red blood cell.

Exposure Keratitis
When eyelids are unable to close properly and hence are unable to keep the eyeball moist and free from debris and irritants, an inflammation of the cornea occurs, resulting in it becoming cloudy with a loss of transparency. This is known as exposure keratopathy syndrome. The signs are pain, squinting, pawing at the eye, avoiding light, and protrusion of the third eyelid. Depending on the cause of the keratitis, treatment may involve eye medications or surgery. If left untreated long-term visual loss may occur.

Facial Dermatitis
Facial dermatitis is a condition which causes inflammation and irritation of the face skin. The most common causes are due to flea bite allergies and reactions to allergens, generally seasonal, in the environment. This can lead to scratching or rubbing the affected areas so it becomes inflamed and irritated.

Bodily waste matter derived from ingested food that is discharged through the anus; also called stool.

Fanconi Syndrome
Fanconi syndrome is a condition where the tubules of the kidneys do not properly reabsorb minerals, glucose, amino acids, and water to keep the body in a metabolic balance. In dogs, if untreated Fanconi Syndrome will eventually lead to death. However, there are several different treatment options to manage kidney function.  The most common signs are excessive drinking and urinating, weight loss and overall poor condition.

Of or relating to cats.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Feline infectious peritonitis, or FIP, is an invariably fatal immune mediated condition caused by infection with mutant form of feline coronavirus.  Most cats infected with feline coronavirus show no clinical signs, however if the virus mutates to a more dangerous virulent form it may result in FIP.  The cats immune response to the virus results in an inflammatory reaction in affected tissues.  There are two clinical forms of the disease recognised - wet or effusive FIP and dry or non-effusive FIP.  All cats with FIP will typically have a fever, reduced appetite, and weight loss.  In addition those with wet FIP develop an accumulation of fluid in their chest or abdomen which may result in breathing difficulties or the characteristic pot bellied appearance respectively.  In cats with dry FIP, there is no fluid accumulation.  These cats often develop neurological or eye problems such as seizures, paralysis, or blindness.  Currently treatment for this condition is palliative.

An unborn animal in the later stages of development showing recognisable features of the mature animal.

Fine Needle Aspirate
A diagnostic procedure sometimes used to investigate superficial (just under the skin) lumps or masses. In this technique, a thin, hollow needle is inserted into the mass to extract cells that, after being stained, will be examined under a microscope.

FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus)
A virus that specifically infects cats (not people).  It is transmitted by cats biting one another, especially during fights.  FIV is the cause of Feline AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) – a progressive deficiency of the immune system that can limit the ability of cats to fight off other infections.

Generating excessive gas in the gastrointestinal tract

FLUTD (Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease)
Describes a collection of conditions that can affect the urinary tract (bladder and/or urethra) of cats. Common clinical signs include straining to urinate and blood in the urine.

A small cavity or deep narrow-mouthed depression (e.g. hair follicle)

Foreign Body
Any abnormal substance within the body.  Commonly used to describe foreign material under the skin (eg splinters, glass) or in the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. toys, balls, bones).

Breaking of hard tissue such as bone. May be caused by trauma or bone disease.

The manner of walking or moving. Assessed to determine the cause of lameness in animals.

Relating to or involving the stomach.

Inflammation of the lining of the stomach.

Relating to the stomach and intestines.

The carrying of an embryo or foetus

Pertaining to the gums.

Inflammation of the gums.

Glaucoma is a condition in which there is increased pressure in eye which, if left untreated, can result in blindness.  Glaucoma can be sudden in onset (acute) in which case the eye is usually very painful and red, or it can be more insidious in its onset (chronic) with no obvious outward changes until the vision is affected.  For this reason regular eye checks are important, particularly in at risk breeds. If detected early medical treatment can be very effective in preserving vision.

The excretion of glucose in the urine. Normally, urine does not contain glucose as the kidneys are able to reclaim glucose back into the bloodstream.

A mass or nodule of chronically inflamed tissue.

A malignant tumour of the blood vessels, usually occurring in the skin, liver or spleen.

The volume of red blood cells in a sample of blood after it has been centrifuged (spun at high speeds). The PCV (Packed Cell Volume), or haematocrit, is expressed as a percentage. For example, normal for dogs is 40-59% and for cats is 29-50%.

The study of blood and diseases of the blood.

A localised swelling filled with blood outside the blood vessels. Usually occurs due to haemorrhage.

The presence of blood in the urine; often a clinical sign of urinary tract disease.


Heart Murmur
A heart murmur is the abnormal sound of blood rushing through one of the heart valves. Instead of just the heartbeat, a whistle of blood flow through a narrowed opening, is heard. The condition is usually detected by hearing a heart murmur during physical examination by a veterinarian.

Also known as Dirofilaria immitis, is a parasite that is spread from host to host via the bites of mosquitoes. The natural host is the dog but it can also infect cats and ferrets too. The worms mature in the heart and may cause a physical blockage as well as thickening of the heart and associated blood vessels. 

Relating to, affecting, or associated with the liver.

Inflammation of the liver.

Abnormal enlargement of the liver.

Protrusion of an organ through a wall of the cavity in which it is normally enclosed.

Hip Dysplasia
Hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip socket which can lead to severe arthritis of the hips. It is an inherited trait that develops particularly with environmental factors such as excess weight, injury at a young age, overexertion on hip joints at a young age, ligament tear at a young age, repetitive motion on forming joint. Clinical signs include lameness, swaying or staggering, discomfort when attempting to lie down or stand up, reluctance to run and jump, or audible clicking sounds when the pet walks or rises to get up. Surgical treatment options are available for severe cases, although most animals can be managed with an appropriate regimen of anti-inflammatory pain relief, weight control, joint supplements, and regular controlled exercise.

A chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the animal.

A living animal on or in which a parasite lives.

The progeny of two animals of different races, breeds, varieties or species.

An abnormal increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the cranial cavity. This may cause increased pressure inside the skull and progressive enlargement of the head, brain damage and even death.

A prefix meaning more than normal.

High levels of glucose in the blood.

An abnormal increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ.

An allergic condition in which the body overreacts to certain substances, such as a bee sting or medication.

High blood pressure.

Elevated body temperature.

Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland, which regulates metabolism, increases thyroid hormone production. This overproduction of hormones causes a "speeding up" of various body systems. Clinical signs may include behaviours changes such as irritability or aggression, increased heart rate, tremors, weight loss and muscular weakness. Treatment can include surgery, medication, or radioactive iodine therapy.  It is a very common disorder of older cats.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in all cats and in some breeds is a genetic  trait. The disease causes thickening of the heart wall, which makes the heart pump less efficiently which could lead to sudden death. Early detection is important to ward off this life-threatening problem. Cat with HCM are also prone to developing thromboemboli.

An enlargement of an organ or a tissue as a result of an increase in the size of cells (rather than the number as in hyperplasia).

To breathe excessively hard and fast causing blood gas disorders.

A prefix meaning less than normal.

Low levels of glucose in the blood.

Incomplete formation of a structure or organ in the body.

Low blood pressure.

An abnormally low body temperature.

Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland, which regulates metabolism, malfunctions and stops producing enough thyroid hormone. Usually affecting middle-aged dogs, the symptoms that can often be chronic, include hair loss or poor coat, weight gain, muscle loss, and lethargy. It can be effectively treated with medication.

Deficiency in the amount of oxygen delivered to the body tissues.

Also known as jaundice.  It is a yellow discolouration of the skin, mucous membranes or whites of the eyes due to excessive levels of bilirubin in the blood.

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a form of diabetes in which patients have little or no ability to produce insulin and are therefore entirely dependent on insulin injections.

Disease arising from an unknown cause.

Lack motility of the gastrointestinal tract.

Immune System
The system that protects the body from foreign substances, cells, and infections.

Describes conditions which result from abnormal activity of the body's immune system. For example, immune mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA), is a disease in which the body's immune system destroys the body's own red blood cells.

A condition in which the animal's immune system has been primed and is able to protect the body from a disease-causing agent such as a virus or bacteria.

The creation of immunity usually against a particular disease. Vaccination is a way to produce immunisation. However, a vaccinated animal is not always immune. If the body did not respond appropriately to the vaccine or if the vaccine was not administered correctly, immunity may not be stimulated.

Immunological disorder in which the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced.  Can be caused by viral infections such as feline immunodeficiency virus in cats.

Pertaining to a substance that suppresses the immune system.

Inactivated Vaccine
Vaccines which are made by taking the real, disease-causing viruses (or bacteria), killing them, and putting them into a liquid base. Also called a killed vaccine.

Loss of control over urination or defaecation.

Incubation Period
The period between infection and the appearance of clinical signs of the disease.

Pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses.

Refers to the state of being invaded or overrun by parasites.

A local response to injury that is characterised by redness, heat, pain, swelling, and often loss of function.

Tending to occur among members of a family. Genetically transmitted features.

Inborn. A permanent characteristic present since birth.

A hormone secreted by the pancreas to regulate glucose in the body.

Insulin Resistance
A condition where insulin becomes less effective at lowering blood sugars.

Intermediate Host
A host (animal, insect, snail etc) that harbours a parasite only for a short transition period, during which (usually) some developmental stage is completed.

The portion of the gastrointestinal tract extending from the stomach to the anus. It is usually divided into two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine.

Inside the cell.

Inside the cranial cavity or head.

Into the muscle.  Generally relates to the site an injection is given.

Into the nose.  This is an effective way of vaccinating dogs against canine cough.

Into the vein.  Generally relates to the site of injection of drugs or fluids.

Serious disorder in which part of the intestine slides, or telescopes, into another part of the intestine. This often blocks the intestine, preventing food or fluid from passing through.

The coloured portion of the eye is called the iris. In the centre of the iris is the black opening called the pupil.

Also called icterus, meaning that a yellow pigment is found in the blood and in the tissues. It is most easily seen in the gums and the whites of eyes.  It can be caused by destruction of red blood cells, liver disease and obstruction of the bile duct.

The second part of the small intestine. The jejunum extends from the duodenum (first part of the small intestine) to the ileum (the final part of the small intestine).

Pertaining to the neck. The jugular veins carry deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart.

Keratitis is inflammation of the cornea (the clear part of the eye). The cornea becomes cloudy, resulting in loss of transparency. All types of keratitis must be treated by a veterinarian.

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca
Also known as dry eye, is a condition that results from the inadequate production of tears.

A life-threatening condition associated with uncontrolled diabetes.

Kidney disease
There are two main forms of kidney disease, acute renal disease and chronic renal disease. Acute renal disease occurs suddenly and is often caused by toxins, infections and changes within a pets body that reduce the blood supply to the kidneys. Whilst, chronic renal disease develops over a longer time and is often a found in older pets.  If there is sufficient kidney damage clinical signs of kidney failure  will be seen, such as increased drinking and urination.  Various medications and dietary changes are used to manage dogs and cats with kidney failure.

Killed Vaccine
Also known as inactivated vaccines. Vaccines which are made by taking the real, disease-causing viruses (or bacteria), killing them, and putting them into a liquid base.

The secretion of milk from the mammary gland and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.

Large Intestine
The portion of the intestine that connects the small intestine to the anus. The large intestine is made up of the caecum, colon and rectum.

Larva (plural larvae)
A distinct juvenile form many animals (such as insects or parasites) undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

Also known as the voicebox, it is located at the entrance to the trachea (or windpipe).  The larynx acts to control the flow of air to the trachea and food and water to the oesophagus.

A dormant stage of disease occurring between exposure to a disease-causing agent and the onset of the disease.

Lens Luxation
This inherited problem is a displacement of the lens from its normal position and can lead to secondary complications such as  glaucoma and subsequent blindness. Surgery is required to correct this problem.

A large organ in the front of the abdomen that is responsible for the detoxification of blood, the production of certain digestive enzymes and bile.

Lymph Nodes
Are small glands composed of white blood cells called lymphocytes. Lymphocytes play a critical role in the immune system by destroying infectious agents (such as viruses and bacteria) and producing antibodies.

Malabsorption Syndrome
Defined as an animal’s inability to absorb the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs from food.

Refers to becoming worse and even resulting in death. Malignant tumours are cancerous growths which expand quickly and can metastasize, or spread to other areas of the body.

A condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess, or in the wrong proportions.

Pertaining to the mammary gland or breast tissue.

The lower jaw.

Any of several skin diseases of mammals caused by parasitic mites that burrow into the skin or hair follicles.  It is characterised by skin lesions, itching and loss of hair.

Mast Cell Tumour
Mast cell tumours are a type of cancer that generally occurs on the skin surface of dogs.  These tumours often present themselves as a pink lump if it's on the surface of the skin or a lump if under the skin. Mast cell tumours can be very aggressive and can spread to  the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. Prompt surgical removal is recommended for this type of cancer.

Mastication or chewing is the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.

Refers to swelling, inflammation, and infection of the mammary glands.

Maternal Antibody
Antibodies acquired by a newborn animal via the placenta or colostrum (antibody-rich milk) of the mother.

A functional disorder that is defined as dilation of the colon or large intestine. This leads to infrequent and difficult passage of faeces and constipation.

Darkening of the faeces by digested blood pigments. Typically the faeces look black in colour.

The long bones in the front foot connecting the toes to the bones of the wrist (carpus).

The spread of disease from one area of the body to another.  Normally used in the context of a cancerous tumour spreading via the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

The long bones in the back foot connecting the toes to the bones of the ankle (tarsus).

The larval form of some parasitic worms. For example heartworm microfilariae circulate in the bloodstream of infected dogs.

A microscopic, single-celled organism. Microorganisms include bacteria, fungi and viruses.

Mitral Valve Disease
A common cause of heart failure in dogs, Mitral Valve disease is more likely to affect smaller and older dogs. The mitral valve separates the left atrium and left ventricle, and functions to prevent the back flow of blood between the chambers. If the valves are misshapen they do not form a tight seal and blood is allowed to flow backwards from the ventricle to the atrium. Progression of the disease can result in congestive heart failure, with dogs showing clinical signs of coughing, reduced exercise tolerance, reduced appetite, and a pot bellied appearance due to the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.  Medication can alleviate the control clinical signs and provide an improved quality of life.

Modified Live Vaccine
A vaccine that utilises a live, attenuated (weakened) bacteria or virus to elicit an immune response.

Medications capable of breaking down or reducing the viscosity of mucus.

Thin layer of tissue lining cavities that are exposed to the external environment and internal environment (such as the mouth, urinary bladder, eyelids). Also known as mucous membranes.

Mucous Membranes
Thin layer of tissue lining cavities that are exposed to the external environment and internal environment (such as the mouth, urinary bladder, eyelids).  Also known as mucosa.

Pertaining to the muscles and skeleton (bones).

Myasthenia Gravis
Is a neuromuscular disease in which severe muscle weakness is the primary sign. It is caused by an inability of certain nerve receptors to function properly.

Large or dilated pupil size.

Radiograph (x-ray) of the spinal cord taken after a radio-opaque dye has been injected into the space around the spinal cord.

Muscle of the heart.

To convert a liquid into a spray for inhalational treatments.

Also known as an autopsy or post-mortem examination.  It refers to the examination of an animal after death.

Is the premature death of cells and living biological tissue.

Also known as roundworms.

A class of disease in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion that intrudes upon and destroys adjacent tissues, and sometimes spreads to other locations in the body. Can be used to describe malignant or benign tumours.

A condition involving a dysfunction of the nerves.

Also known as desexing.  It involves the surgical removal of the testes in males or the ovaries and uterus in females.

Nodules are solid lumps or bumps found on an animal's skin.

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
Medications with anti-inflammatory, analgaesic (pain reducing) and anti-pyretic (fever-reducing) effects. Non-steroidal distinguishes NSAIDs from other drugs which contain steroids, which are also anti-inflammatory.

Non-core Vaccine
Vaccines that should be administered to animals assessed to be at risk of that disease.  For example leptospirosis and canine cough in dogs or feline leukaemia and FIV in cats.

Not capable of causing disease.

A term combining the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”. It is used to describe a food or part of a food that allegedly provides medicinal or health benefits.

Any substance which has nutritious qualities.

A term describe involuntary eye movement. Nystagmus can be horizontal, vertical or rotary.

Obsessive Compulsive
A behavioural condition in which a pet repeatedly performs an action out of context.

Refers to a structure or process that is hidden or detected indirectly.

Pertaining to the eye.

The medical term for fluid retention in the body, causing swelling to occur in the affected area.

The part of the intestinal tract between the mouth and stomach.

Off Label
Refers to a drug prescribed to treat a condition for which it has not been approved. Off-label use of a drug must be determined by the attending veterinarian.

A synthetic narcotic that resembles naturally occurring opium.

Osteodystrophy is the general term for defective bone development that is usually attributable to renal disease or an imbalance in the calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Symptoms may not be diagnosed until renal disease is apparent but bone deformation can develop. Treatment may include dietary supplements, however, it is a chronic condition.

Term to describe an infection of the bone or bone marrow.

Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer, most commonly found in middle aged to older large breed dogs. The cancer  commonly spreads to the lungs. Symptoms include lameness, pain of any of the bones, brittle bones (that break with minimal trauma), swelling of a limb, difficulty breathing, coughing & exercise intolerance.

Relating to the ear.

Damaging to the structures of the ear.

The release of an egg from the ovary of the female.

A hormone that stimulates the uterus to contract during birth and the mammary glands to release milk.

Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
The volume of blood cells in a sample of blood after it has been centrifuged  The PCV, or haematocrit, is expressed as a percentage. For example, normal for dogs is 40-59% and for cats is 29-50%.

Acceptable to the taste; readily eaten.

The act of feeling with the hand or fingers. A phase of the physical examination in which the sense of touch is used to gather information essential for diagnosis.

A term that describes inflammation of the pancreas. Clinical signs include vomiting, lethargy and a painful abdomen.

Pannus is the common name for chronic superficial keratitis, a condition frequently seen in German Shepherd Dogs.  Pannus is thought to be an immune mediated condition that is triggered or made worse by UV light.  Affected dogs develop scar tissue, pigmentation, and the new blood vessels on the cornea.  Pannus is a life-long condition that is treated with topical eye medications.

A small solid bump rising from the skin that is usually less than 1 centimetre in diameter.

Refers to loss of motor function due to impairment of muscles or nerves.

A substance used to destroy parasites.

Refers to the administration of a drug into the body through some way other than the digestive tract, such as subcutaneous or intravenous injection.

Refers to partial loss of motor function due to impairment of muscles or nerves.

Term used to describe delivery of a baby or giving birth.

Passive Immunity
Is the transfer of antibodies from one individual to another. It can occur naturally, when maternal antibodies are transferred to the newborn animal in colostrum, and can also be transferred artificially, such as a plasma transfusion.

Causing disease.  Usually used to describe bacteria which are capable of causing disease.

Person who specialises in the diagnosis of diseases through the examination of animal tissue and body fluids.

Patellar Luxation
Patella luxation is a condition in which the knee-cap no longer glides within its natural groove and can become evident at any age. It is believed that it is an inherited problem which is more common in smaller breeds ,however it can also result from trauma. Symptoms include intermittent skipping, occasional hitch of the leg, or a persistent weight bearing lameness.

PCV (Packed Cell Volume)
The volume of blood cells in a sample of blood after it has been centrifuged. The PCV, or haematocrit, is expressed as a percentage. For example, normal for dogs is 40-59% and for cats is 29-50%.

Perianal Fistula
A painful condition of the skin surrounding the anus, in which small tracts open up, bleed and get infected. 

The region of the body between the genitals and the anus.

A thin membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities, and covers most abdominal organs.

Inflammation of the peritoneum.

The bones that are in the toes.

Chemicals released by an animal enabling it to communicate with other members of its own species.

Refers to an increase in the reactivity of the skin to sunlight. It can cause reddening and blistering of the skin.

A pattern of eating non-food materials (such as dirt or rocks).

A dummy medication or treatment.

A biofilm that develops naturally on the teeth. It is formed by colonising bacteria trying to attach itself to the smooth surface of a tooth.

Are found in the blood of animals and functions to promote blood clotting. Also known as thrombocytes.

The term means inflammation of more than one joint. Often used in the context of infectious or immune-mediated diseases.

Having more than the normal number of toes.

Excessive thirst and drinking.

An abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.

Excessive appetite and eating.

Excessive production of urine.

After surgery or an operation.

The fold of skin that covers the penis.

A hormone produced by the ovaries which is responsible for the continuation of pregnancy and a myriad of other functions.

The forecasted outcome of a disease process or treatment.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy
Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a genetic condition resulting in the degeneration of the retina.  The condition affects both eyes, resulting in a loss of vision and eventual blindness. The initial clinical sign is a decreased vision at night, with more advance signs such as dilated pupils and decreased pupillary light reflex being seen as the condition progresses. There is no treatment but appropriate advice will help maintain quality of life.

Prolapsed Rectum
Describes a medical condition where part of the rectum protrudes through the anus.

Any of a large group of single-celled organisms that live in water or as parasites. Examples include Giardia and Coccidia species.


Relating to, resembling, or characteristic of parrots.

Pertaining to the lungs.

Pulmonary Arteries
The artery that carries blood with low levels of oxygen from the heart to the lungs.

Pulmonary Oedema
The accumulation of fluid in the lungs.

A small lump in the skin filled with pus.

Pyoderma is a bacterial infection of the skin.  Most cases of pyoderma are limited to the upper most layers of skin (superficial pyoderma) although the infection can spread to the lower tissues of the skin (the dermis) resulting in a deep pyoderma.  The most common clinical sign is red, itchy, scaly skin.  There may be hair loss at the site, often due to self trauma as the animal bites and scratches at the itchy skin.  Most cases of pyoderma are caused by an overgrowth of the dogs normal skin bacteria and so are not contagious - that is they are not spread from dog to dog.  Instead pyoderma often occurs due to an underlying condition such as a atopy or food allergy.

An accumulation of pus within the uterus.

A breeding female cat.

A branch of veterinary science dealing with the medical use of X-rays to diagnose and treat disease.

Lying down.

Expelling food from the oesophagus.

Pertaining to the kidneys.

Renal Insufficiency
Also called renal failure, is when the kidneys no longer function well enough to maintain a normal state of health.

Pertaining to respiration, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Term referring to the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the inner eye.

Refers to a fungal skin infection.

Sacrocaudal Dysgenesis
Sacrocaudal dysgenesis is a genetic musculoskeletal  disorder which has developed as a result of the breeding of  Manx cats. The vertebrae of the tail and the sacrum are not developed properly. The spinal cord may also not be properly developed or completely sealed. The cat has a tailless or stumpy tail appearance and is commonly called Manx Syndrome, after the tailless cat breed.

Sebaceous  Adenitis
This is an uncommon autoimmune, inflammatory skin disease that affects the sebaceous glands of the hair follicles. The glands, that excrete a fatty lubricating oil are destroyed, resulting in dried out and brittle skin. This can lead to skin lesions along the back and ears and symptoms include silvery dandruff, hair loss which has a “moth eaten” appearance to the coat, a dull and brittle coat and facial swelling. Management of the disease is generally washing with antibiotic shampoos and soaking in mineral oils, however, results can vary greatly.

Sebaceous Cysts
Sebaceous cysts are a benign, non-painful lumps. Usually found on the head, neck, body and upper legs, they are smooth, generally round and vary in size.

Sebaceous Glands
Microscopic gland in the skin that secrete an oily/waxy substance.

Seborrhoea is a  skin condition that results in excessively greasy (seborrhoea oleosa) or excessively scaly skin (seborrhoea sicca), often with associated inflammation. It is possible for dogs to have both greasy and scaly skin at the same time on different regions of the body. Suggested treatments are medicated shampoo and topical and oral medication.

Separation Anxiety
Is a behavioural condition where dogs, when left alone, exhibit distress and behavioural problems.

A toxic state caused by the absorption of pathogenic microorganisms and their products into the bloodstream or tissues.

A toxic state caused by the absorption of pathogenic microorganisms and their products into the bloodstream.

Refers to blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against an antigen or microorganism.

The clear yellowish fluid obtained upon separating whole blood into its solid and liquid components after it has been allowed to clot.

A term used to describe the release of organisms (bacteria, protozoa, viruses) into the environment from an infected animal.

Skin Allergies
Skin allergies are among one of the most common health problems in dogs. Resulting from allergic, environmental, infectious, neurogenic, nutritional and parasitic factors, they vary from acute to chronic or long-lasting problems requiring life-time treatment. Many triggers can start an allergic reaction in dogs from food, carpeting, blankets, dust mites, mould spores in the air to pollen, plastic food dishes, furniture stuffing and ornamental plants. Symptoms can include excessive scratching, licking & chewing of paws/limbs which can lead to poor wound healing with secondary infections becoming a problem. Treatments vary depending on the severity but topical medications & oral medication is often required.

Skin Cytology
The microscopic examination of cells that have been collected from the skin. 

Skin Fold Dermatitis
A common problem, skin fold dermatitis can affect many breeds of dogs. It is particularly common in short muzzle or pug dogs plus dogs with loose skin areas on the neck, trunk and legs where skins folds onto skin. Rubbing and friction between the  skin layers, combining this with moisture and the presence of bacteria, can lead to severe lesions and sores in the folds of the skin. Symptoms can be moist to damp feeling in the folds of skin often accompanied by a putrid smell and hot to the touch, lesions, excessively dry and brittle hair or hair loss and dry, puffy, and darkly pigmented skin. Treatment can be using antibacterial shampoo, complete drying of the folds using drying solutions and topical or oral antibiotic.

Skin Scraping
A diagnostic test used in almost every skin condition. The skin is scraped and the material examined under a microscope.

Skin Tumours
Skin tumours are very common in dogs and most are benign. They appear in or on the skin as a lump or in the soft tissue lying just between the skin and underlying fat, muscle or bone. They can be caused by many different things, including infection (bacterial, viral or fungal), cancer or the simple accumulation and compaction of fat. Early identification of the cause is crucial to prevent the situation becoming more serious.

Smooth Muscle
A special type of muscle responsible for the contractility of hollow organs, such as blood vessels, the gastrointestinal tract, the bladder, or the uterus.

Solar Dermatitis or Collie Nose
Sunburn is the cause of this disease and results in scaly lesions. Repeated exposure can lead to further skin problems. This condition mainly effects short coated or  lightly pigmented hair breeds. Ointments are often prescribed to stop inflammation but sunscreen lotions are a preventative measure.

Spay (ovariohysterectomy)
Term referring to the surgical removal of the reproductive organs (ovaries and uterus) of the female animal.

A ring of muscle which holds any kind of biological opening closed.

A large abdominal organ with important roles in regard to red blood cells and the immune system.

Refers to the state in which the normal flow of a body liquid stops, for example the flow of intestinal contents through the digestive tract.

Status Epilepticus
A very serious neurological condition in which the brain experiences a prolonged seizure, or a series of prolonged seizures without a full return to consciousness in between.

Also known as a stricture, is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular or structure, such as the intestine.

Also known as ammonium magnesium phosphate. Struvite can form stones in the urinary bladder.

Under the skin.

Refers to incomplete or partial dislocation of a joint.

Is the sudden loss of consciousness, or fainting.

Synovial Joint
Is the most movable and widespread type of joint throughout the body. Examples include the knee, elbow and hip.

Pertaining to or affecting the whole body rather than localised.

Refers to a faster than normal resting heart rate.

Refers to a faster than normal resting respiratory, or breathing, rate.

The animal equivalent of an ankle. It is also known as the hock.

A build-up of bacteria, saliva, and food on the teeth which becomes mineralised, forming a hard coating and eventually causing gum disease and possibly tooth loss.

Tear Duct Problems
Blockage of the tear ducts can be a congenital problem or can occur due to acquired conditions such as infections, dental disease, or cancer.  When the tear ducts become blocked tears run down the face. Constant wetting of the skin around the eyes due to the overflow of tears can predispose the dog to developing skin infections in this area.

Temporomandibular Joint
The joint where the lower jaw bone, or the mandible, meets the skull.

The medical term that refers to a low or reduced platelet count.

Thromboembolism / Saddle Thrombus
A thrombus is a blood clot that forms within a blood vessel.  If the blood clot becomes dislodged it can be carried in the bloodstream and cause a blockage.  When this occurs it is known as a thromboembolism.  Blockage of a blood vessel due to a thromboembolism stops oxygen getting to the tissues supplied by that vessel, and also prevents the removal of waste products from these tissues.  This condition is most frequently reported in cats with heart disease, where the most common site for the clot to lodge is in the large blood vessels supplying the hind legs.  Lodging of the blood vessels here results in paralysis of the legs and severe pain.

Is an organised group of cells, not necessarily identical, that together carry out a specific function.

Is a measure of concentration. Normally refers to the level of antibodies in blood to a particular antigen.

To be applied to external body surfaces such as the skin.

A generic term for the presence of toxin in the blood.

Refers to inflammation of the trachea and bronchi.

A tumour is an abnormal growth of body tissue. Tumours can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).

A defect of the skin, cornea or mucous membrane caused by the loss of damaged tissue.

A technique used to produce an image of a deep structure within the body by directing ultrasound waves at it and recording the reflections (echoes) from it.

Also known as the belly button. The umbilicus is where the umbilical cord attaches to the foetus during pregnancy.

Is a salt derived from uric acid.  Urate can form stones in the urinary bladder.

Is a compound which is essentially the waste produced when the body metabolises protein.

Urinary Incontinence
Is the loss of voluntary control of urination.

Urinary Obstruction
A term to describe one of many different conditions that disrupt normal urine flow from the body.

Also known as hives. Raised, itchy areas of skin that are usually a sign of an allergic reaction.

Refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye.

The administration of a vaccine to stimulate immunity to a disease.

Vaccine Failure
A vaccine failure is when an animal develops a disease in spite of being vaccinated against it. There is usually nothing wrong with the vaccine, but for some reason, the animal's immune system did not adequately respond to it.

Inflammation of blood vessels.

Vasoconstriction is the narrowing (constriction) of blood vessels by muscles in their walls.

Vasodilation is the widening (dilation) of blood vessels by the relaxation of the muscles in their walls.

Vena Cava
The cranial vena cava is the large vein which returns blood to the heart from the head, neck and both upper limbs. The caudal vena cava returns blood to the heart from the lower part of the body.

Ventral Comedone Syndrome
This mostly cosmetic problem, is where comedones (known as blackheads) form as small boil-like blisters, swell then drain and reform on a regular basis. Occasionally, however, the comedones can become the target of bacterial infection which begins to affect the surrounding skin at a rapid rate. If a secondary bacterial infection occurs antibiotic treatment may be necessary.

The large, muscular chambers of the heart that pump blood to the body or lungs.

Vestibular System
Is the system comprised of the inner ear, nerves and brain, that provides a sense of balance.

A small infectious agent that is unable to replicate outside a living animal cell.

Abnormal twisting of the intestines or stomach. This can be a life threatening condition due to the loss of blood supply and accumulation of toxic gases and fluids in the portion of the obstructed bowel segment.

The act of a dog giving birth.

White Blood Cells
Are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) and foreign materials.

Window of Susceptibility
A time period in the life of a young animal in which the maternal antibodies are too low to provide protection against a certain disease, but too high to allow a vaccine to work and produce immunity.

Wobblers is the common name for a group of conditions of the cervical vertebrae that causes an unsteady (wobbly) gait and weakness in dogs. Clinical signs are due to compression of the spinal cord and are usually progressive.  The disease is most common in large breed dogs, in particular Great Danes and Dobermans. Treatment is either medical to control the symptoms, or surgical to correct the spinal cord compression.

High-energy electromagnetic radiation used to take radiographs.

A term used to describe any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from animals to humans.